MACV declared vast areas to be “free‐fire zones,” which meant that U.S. and ARVN artillery and tactical aircraft, as well as B‐52 “carpet bombing,” could target anyone or anything in the area. Counteroffensive, Phase II, 1 July 1966 - 31 May 1967. On May 07, 1954, Viet Minh forces won the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and ended French involvement in Indochina. In June, Johnson named one of the army’s most distinguished officers, Gen. William C. Westmoreland, then commandant of West Point, as commander U.S. MACV. Johnson’s choice of gradual escalation of bombing and incremental troop deployments was based upon the concept of limited warfare. Flying out of bases in Thailand, U.S. Air Force fighter‐bombers—primarily F‐105 Thunderchiefs and later F‐4 Phantoms—joined U.S. Navy Phantoms and A‐4 Skyhawks from a powerful carrier task force located at a point called Yankee Station, seventy‐five miles off the North Vietnamese coast in the Gulf of Tonkin. On 14 July 1965, the Commandant of the Marine Corps issued Marine Corps Order 5750.2 (MCO 5750.2), which The soldier was one of more than 100 who were wounded during Viet Cong attacks on two U.S. military compounds at Pleiku, 240 miles north of Saigon. 1st Brigade 2nd Brigade 3rd Brigade Infantry 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment (Mechanized) 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment (Mechanized) 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment 2nd Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry Regiment 2nd Battalion, 28th Infantry Regiment Artillery 1st Battalion, 5th Artillery Regiment (105mm) 8th Battalion, 6th Artillery Regiment (15… A diplomatic resolution of the conflict remained elusive. The father was taken to an interrogation camp with other suspects rounded up by the U.S. 1st air cavalry division. Lyndon B. Johnson inherited the Vietnam dilemma. A U.S. Marine CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter comes down in flames after being hit by enemy ground fire during Operation Hastings, just south of the demilitarized zone between North and South Vietnam, on July 15, 1966. A grim-faced U.S. Marine fires his M60 machine gun, concealed behind logs and resting in a shallow hole, during the battle against North Vietnamese regulars for Hill 484, just south of the demilitarized zone, on October 10, 1966. After six infantry, armor and cavalry battalions sealed the 40-square-mile area on January 9, 1967, the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment (11th ACR) attacked west of Ben Cat. Risks of a wider war with China and the Soviet Union meant that the United States would not go all out to annihilate North Vietnam. A father holds the body of his child as South Vietnamese Army Rangers look down from their armored vehicle on March 19, 1964. On 2 January 1963, however, at Ap Bac on the Plain of Reeds southwest of Saigon, a Vietcong battalion of about 320 men inflicted heavy damage on an ARVN force of 3,000 equipped with troop‐carrying helicopters, new UH‐1 (“Huey”) helicopter gunships, tactical bombers, and APCs. Westmoreland responded with the 1st Air Cavalry Division (Air Mobile). Four days after Kennedy’s death, Johnson, now president, reaffirmed in National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 273 that the U.S. goal was to assist South Vietnam in its “contest against the externally directed and supported communist conspiracy.” U.S. policy defined the Vietnam War as North Vietnamese aggression against South Vietnam. IV. The vast majority of the documents in this series were created between 1965 and 1979. It doesn't exist officially. With U.S. bombs pounding North Vietnam, Westmoreland turned America’s massive firepower on the southern insurgents. Hovering U.S. Army helicopters pour machine gun fire into a tree line to cover the advance of South Vietnamese ground troops in an attack on a Viet Cong camp 18 miles north of Tay Ninh, near the Cambodian border, in March of 1965. The UH-1 Iroquois ("Huey") The Hoist Evacuation Missions Evacuation Problems Enemy Fire A Turning Point . Several third countries, such as Poland and Great Britain, offered proposals intended to facilitate negotiations. The JCS wanted a mobilization of the reserves and National Guard, and McNamara proposed levying war taxes. Corruption, factionalism, and continued Buddhist protests plagued the Thieu‐Ky government. A U.S. Marine, newly arrived in South Vietnam on April 29, 1965, drips with perspiration while on patrol in search of Viet Cong guerrillas near Da Nang air base. In the early spring of 1967 the treecrusher proved its ability to perform in a swampy jungle; however, it was not reliable enough in South Vietnam and was returned to the United States when the lease expired. In October, Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, the PAVN commander, launched a major offensive in the Central Highlands, southwest of Pleiku. By mid -1967, U.S., Vietnamese, and Republic of Korea forces were operational in the combat zone. The government was trying to win their alliance in its war with the Viet Cong. Bombing could boost Saigon’s morale and might persuade the North to cease its support of the insurgency. Throughout his administration, Johnson insisted that the only possible negotiated settlement of the conflict would be one in which North Vietnam recognized the legitimacy of South Vietnam’s government. As U.S. “Eagle Flight” helicopters hover overhead, South Vietnamese troops wade through a rice paddy in Long An province during operations against Viet Cong guerrillas in the Mekong Delta, in December of 1964. Recognizing the interdependence of political, economic, sociological, and military factors, the Joint Chiefs of Staff declared that American military objectives should be to cause North Vietnam to cease its control and support of the insurgency in South Vietnam and Laos, to assist South Vietnam in defeating Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces in Sout… The president wanted to concentrate on his ambitious domestic program, the Great Society, but his political instincts told him that his leadership would be damaged fatally if America’s client state in South Vietnam succumbed. Increasingly, however, the U.S. effort focused on the North. Rick Holmes of C company, 2nd battalion, 503rd infantry, 173rd airborne brigade, sits down on January 3, 1966, in Vietnam. Three crewmen escaped with serious burns. United States operations after 1 July 1966 were a continuation of the earlier counteroffensive campaign. A U.S. Air Force Douglas A-1E Skyraider drops a white phosphorus bomb on a Viet Cong position in South Vietnam in 1966. In May 1967, a 182-strong rifle company dubbed Victor (V) was deployed from the 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment (1RNZIR) base in West Malaysia. On the night of 2 August, North Vietnamese gunboats fired on the USS Maddox, a destroyer on an intelligence‐collecting mission, in the same area of the Gulf of Tonkin where South Vietnamese commandos were conducting raids against the North Vietnamese coast. At least two Americans and several Vietnamese were killed in the bombing. Using mobility and powerful weapons, the MACV commander could limit U.S. casualties while exhausting the enemy, that is, inflicting heavier losses than could be replaced. A slideshow of my tour of duty in Vietnam with 1st Sig Bg at Lang Bian Mountain, Cam Ranh Bay. The war was at a stalemate. In August 1966, led by the 2nd Brigade, the 4th Infantry Division’s (“Ivy Division”—a play on the Roman numeral IV) headquarters closed in on the central highlands of Vietnam. A man brews tea while a U.S. Marine examines a pinup in Vietnam in September of 1967. The Australians did not believe her because she seemed to lack any medical knowledge. Sergeant Ronald Payne, 21, of Atlanta, Georgia, emerges from a Viet Cong tunnel holding his silencer-equipped revolver with which he fired at guerrillas fleeing ahead of him underground. Three weeks later, President Kennedy was assassinated, and U.S. policy in Vietnam was again at a crossroads. She was taken back to the Australian headquarters where she told under sharp interrogation (which included a “waterprobe”; see her wet clothes after the interrogation) that she worked as a Viet Cong nurse in the village of Hoa Long and had been in the tunnel for 10 days. Escalation of the air and ground war in 1965 provoked Hanoi to begin deploying into the South increasing units of the regular North Vietnamese Army (NVA), or People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN), as it was called. Targets expanded to include the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos and factories, farms, and railroads in North Vietnam. Realizing the increasingly unpopularity of Diem regime, Hanoi established the National Liberation Front (NLF), better known as the Viet Cong, on December 20, 1960, which consisted of all anti-government activists – both communists and non-communists, as a common front to fight against Diem. The buildup of formal U.S. military units had begun on 8 March 1965, when two battalions of Marines landed at Da Nang. Poe had already fought in the US Marine Corps in World War II, and later joined the CIA and served in Korea and in several secret US wars. Payne and others of the 196th light infantry brigade probed the massive tunnel in Hobo Woods, South Vietnam, on January 21, 1967, and found detailed maps and plans of the enemy. In return, communist insurgents also assassinated hundreds of South Vietnamese officials. Indeed, many South Vietnamese perceived the strategic hamlets as government oppression, not protection, because people were forced to leave their ancestral homes for the new settlements. Smoke rises from wreckage in background. The guided-missile destroyer USS Sterett fires its Mark 38 25mm machine gun during a live-fire exercise.
us army operations in vietnam 1967 2021