In Buchanan's State of the Union address earlier in the month, he had taken a hard stand against the Mormon rebellion, and had actually asked Congress to enlarge the size of the regular army to deal with the crisis. J Keith Melville, Theory and Practice of Church and State During the Brigham Young Era at 47–48. As governor, Cumming soon became more popular with the Mormons than with the military forces that had remained until the outbreak of the Civil War. Faces at War's End. By the time Governor Cumming was securely placed in office, the Utah War had become an embarrassment for President Buchanan. At this time, the leadership of the LDS Church supported polygamy or "plural marriage" as it was called by the Mormons. Historian Leonard J. Arrington noted that "the cream of the United States Army" reviled the Mormon settlers. The Nauvoo Legion was under the command of Daniel H. Wells and consisted of all able-bodied men between 15 and 60. The Battle of Normandy was a hard-fought campaign. During the winter both sides strengthened their forces. From battle lines in Europe and the Pacific, to service on the home front in Utah, veterans remember the final days of conflict and the spontaneous explosion of joy at the end of World War Two in VICTORY! There is disagreement as to how effective their preparations would have been had battle occurred. In the spring of 1857, President James Buchanan appointed a non-Mormon, Alfred Cumming, as governor of the Utah Territory, replacing Brigham Young, and dispatched troops to enforce the order. Mormon mail contractors, including Porter Rockwell and Abraham O. Smoot, received word in Missouri that their contract was canceled and that the Army was on the move. As they settled in Utah, the desert territory began to blossom. All LDS missionaries serving in the United States and Europe were recalled. Young had generally adopted a policy of conversion and conciliation towards native tribes. Originally President James Buchanan sent an expedition of 2500 soldiers to suppress what he termed to be a "rebellion" in the Territory. On June 19, a newly arrived reporter for the New York Herald somewhat inaccurately wrote, "Thus was peace made – thus was ended the 'Mormon war', which...may be thus historisized: – Killed, none; wounded, none; fooled, everybody. Register The Mormon Wiki. He obtained an escort of soldiers commanded by Lt. James A. The Mormon War, otherwise known as the Utah War or Mormon Rebellion, describes the violence surrounding an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the U.S. Army, which lasts from March 1857 to July 1858. As early as August 1857, Brigham Young had written to Thomas L. Kane of Pennsylvania asking for help. I am feeding 100 men, all hard at work. As they descended Echo Canyon to Salt Lake city, Kane and the Mormon militia men successfully fooled Cumming as to the size of the armed contingent lining the canyon, something of which Cumming later complained bitterly. July 24, 1847: Mormon Pioneers found Salt Lake City as the first city of the, April 1857: Troops are mobilized for the Utah campaign (, July 5, 1857: Brigham Young refers in a sermon to "rumors" that the U.S. is sending 1,500 to 2,000 troops into the Utah Territory, and warns them, possibly sarcastically, that if people enter the territory and don't "behave themselves", they will be subject to a "Vigilance Committee", and the, July 13, 1857: President Buchanan appoints, July 23, 1857: Rockwell and Smoot arrive in Salt Lake City and inform, August 2, 1857: Brigham Young publicly discusses the possible secession of the Mormon theocracy from the, August 5, 1857: Brigham Young declares martial law (. April 2017 marked the centennial of America’s entry into World War I, a defining conflict of the modern era. 4 (2018), A DIVISION OF THE UTAH DEPARTMENT OF HERITAGE & ARTS ©2018, William P. Mackinnon, “Thomas L. Kane’s 1858 Utah War Mission: Presidential Ingratitude and Manipulation,” Utah Historical Quarterly 86, no. By Ardis E. Parshall Special to The Tribune . The Mormons, fearful that the large U.S. military force had been sent to annihilate them[citation needed], made preparations for defense. Congress dealt with the Utah issue in the Compromise Measures of 1850, a series of acts passed by Congress. However, the rest of American society rejected polygamy with some even accusing the Mormons of gross immorality. As early as 1852, Dr. John M. Bernhisel, Utah's Mormon delegate to Congress, had suggested that an impartial committee be sent to investigate the actual conditions in the territory. By the end of August 1944, the German Army was in full retreat from France, but by September Allied momentum had slowed. An alliance with the Native Americans was central to Young's strategy for war, although the relationship between the Mormons and Utah's native inhabitants had been strained since the settlers' arrival in 1847. Firearms were manufactured or repaired by the Mormons, scythes wer… The Great Utah War was a conflict between the United States of America and the Mormon settlers of Utah Territory beginning in 1857. The Utah Territory (blue with black outline) and proposed State of Deseret (dotted line). Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often called Mormon pioneers, began settling in what is now Utah in the summer of 1847. This included permitting Johnston's Army into the Territory. Utah veterans remember the final days of conflict and the spontaneous explosion of joy at the end of World War II in Utah World War II Stories: VICTORY! A number of Mormon settlements in Idaho, Nevada and California would not be resettled for decades and some were permanently abandoned. When did the Cold War actually begin? A year's worth of work improving their living conditions had essentially been lost. ...Very busy dealing out provisions to the public hands. By 1860 sectional strife split the Democratic Party into northern and southern wings, indirectly leading to the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1860. [46] David Bigler has shown that Young originally intended this evacuation to go northwards towards the Bitterroot Valley in present day Montana. The Surrender. Jacob Hamblin, famed Mormon missionary of the Southwest, whose activities including establishing and maintaining Mórmon-Indian alliances along the Colorado, set out in March with three other companions from Las Vegas to learn more about Ives's intentions. They joked around, and they did what they had to do. Despite his belligerent public posture, Brigham Young never intended to force a showdown with the U.S. Army. Additional info added to the photo includes an anecdote about his position as a Mormon missionary in Germany during the breakout of the war between Germany and France. [47] Even after Alfred Cumming was installed as governor in mid-April, the "Move South" continued unabated. Other articles where Utah War is discussed: Salt Lake City: History: officials led to the so-called Utah War of 1857–58, when General Albert Sidney Johnston’s troops marched through the city to establish Camp Floyd west of Utah Lake. An emigrant wagon train of non-Mormons is attacked and besieged by a mixed contingent of Mormon militia dressed as Paiute Indians. So, without investigation, the contract for mail service to Utah was canceled and 2,500-man military force was ordered to accompany Alfred Cumming to Great Salt Lake City. Senator Sam Houston was vehemently opposed to it and called it, "one of the most fearful calamities that has befallen this country, from its inception to the present moment. However, the President would not wait. The federal government remained stalemated and little could be done. Peter Crawley, "The Constitution of the State of Deseret". Buchanan and the U.S. Congress saw these acts as obstructing, if not subverting, the operation of legitimate institutions of the United States. There are few books published about Utah Territory during the American Civil War. The Mormons' lack of information on the army's mission created apprehension and led to their making defensive preparations. Young also sent George A. Smith to the settlements of southern Utah to prepare them for action. When Ives was chosen instead, he used the rumors of Native American unrest and purported Mormon designs on the Colorado river and successfully organized a second armed expedition in competition with Ives. [15] When gold was discovered in California, in 1848 at Sutter's Mill, which sparked the famous California Gold Rush, thousands of immigrants began moving west on trails that passed directly through territory settled by Mormon pioneers. Additionally, LDS Church leaders counseled Latter-day Saints to use ecclesiastical arbitration to resolve disputes amongst church members before resorting to the more explicit legal system. However, the Bannock and Shoshone raid against Fort Limhi in February 1858 blocked this northern retreat. Communications and personal problems delayed Kane’s approach to Buchanan, and not until after Christmas did he receive permission to go to Utah as an unofficial emissary. [23] There were further charges of treason, battery, theft, and fraud made by other officials including Federal Surveyors,[24] and Federal Indian Agents. From 1857 to 1858, President James Buchanan sent U.S. forces to the Utah Territory, in what became known as the Utah Expedition. James Strang, a rival to Brigham Young who also claimed succession to the leadership of the church after the death of Joseph Smith, elevated these fears by proclaiming himself a king and resettled his followers on Beaver Island (Lake Michigan), after the main body of the LDS Church had fled to Utah. During the war, Lot Smith and the Nauvoo Legion burned roughly fifty-two wagons belonging to outfitters Russell, Majors and Waddell. Van Vliet carried a letter to Young from General Harney ordering Young to make arrangements for the citizens of Utah to accommodate and supply the troops once they arrived. The film’s all-star cast included Henry Fonda as Brig. [11][12], Taking all incidents into account, MacKinnon estimates that approximately 150 people died as a direct result of the year-long Utah War, including the 120 migrants killed at Mountain Meadows. Everett Cooley (ed. The Democrats believed that American attitudes toward polygamy had the potential of derailing the compromise on slavery. Kane was a man of some political prominence who had been helpful to the Mormons in their westward migration and later political controversies. It was assaulted on June 6, 1944, by elements of the U.S. 4th Infantry Division and was taken with relatively few casualties. An army advancing up the Colorado River would cut off this escape route. incurring the expense of sending troops without investigating the reports on Utah's disloyalty to the United States, dispatching the expedition late in the season, and. [11] Consequently, at the end of March 1858, settlers in the northern counties of Utah including Salt Lake City boarded up their homes and farms and began to move south, leaving small groups of men and boys behind to burn the settlements if necessary. The Mormons settled in Utah beginning in 1847, after mobs murdered the Prophet Joseph Smith and expelled the Mormon Church from Illinois. Congress saw right through what President Buchanan was trying to do, and strongly opposed the Utah War. [citation needed] Although Young's secular position simplified his administration of the Territory, he believed his religious authority was more important among a nearly homogeneous population of Mormons. The U.S. government abandons the Utah Territory. However, President Abraham Lincoln did not enforce these laws; instead Lincoln gave Brigham Young tacit permission to ignore the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act in exchange for not becoming involved with the American Civil War. Directed by Rob Sibley. There they remained in shared and improvised housing while the outcome of the Utah War was being determined. These stories led many Americans to believe that Mormon leaders were petty tyrants and that Mormons were determined to create a Zionist, polygamous kingdom in the newly acquired territories. DONALD L. MOORMAN & GENE A. The lives of all who took part in the war were changed deeply, for better or worse--and so were the lives of many who did not actually go to war but were affected indirectly. [55] In March 1863, Judge Kinney issued a writ against Young for violation of the Suppression of Polygamy Act. Despite this, complete federal dominance was slow in coming. [44], The journals of members of the Ives expedition as well as the Mormons from Hamblin's group attest to the tension and war hysteria among both the US Army and the Mormons in these remote territories.[44]. With the nearby civilian town of Fairfield, Camp Floyd represented the first sizable non-Mormon resident population in Utah, and it ended forever the Mormon dream of a Zion geographically separate from the world of unbelievers. "[19] The Republicans linked the Democratic principle of popular sovereignty to the acceptance of polygamy in Utah, and turned this accusation into a formidable political weapon. Both Pres. "History of Utah, 1540-1886". Upon reaching Utah in early June, they found Young and his colleagues willing to accept forgiveness for past offenses in exchange for accepting Cumming and the establishment of an army garrison in the territory. 5 posts The Utah War The Utah War. As the war began in early 1861, the War Department pulled the Federal troops out of the Utah Territory and reassigned them to other regions where they were more immediately needed to quell the brewing rebellion. As early as August 5, 1857 Young had decided to declare martial law throughout the Territory and a document was printed to that effect. At Utah, the VII Corps had penetrated a good five miles with only light casualties. ; A Writ Under the Polygamy Act Issued Against Brigham Young--He Responds promptly to the Summons. “Utah is winning the war on homelessness with ‘Housing First’ program”, said the Los Angeles Times . Therefore in April, the President sent an official peace commission to Utah consisting of Benjamin McCulloch and Lazarus Powell, which arrived in June. [17]:1095 The LDS Church in territorial Utah viewed plural marriage as religious doctrine until it was removed from the essential dogma of the Church by Wilford Woodruff in 1890.[14]:81–82[18]. Some people feel that if the telephone was available then, maybe it would not have happened. During their descent, the Mojave informed Ives's that Mormons had recently been among the Mohaves and were inciting unrest by intimating that the real purpose of the river expedition was to steal Indian lands. Arthur P. Welchman, a member of a company of missionaries that was recalled due to the war, wrote of the document: Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke had led the Mormon Battalion and had an abiding respect for the Latter-day Saints. Van Vliet had been previously known by the Latter-day Saints in Iowa, and they trusted and respected him. Social and religious conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons continued to influence the life of the city for a century. Van Vliet arrived in Salt Lake City on September 8. The confrontation lasted from May 1857 until July 1858. "[51] While all these private assurances were inducements for the Latter-day Saints to bend to federal will, Buchanan maintained a tougher stance in his public statements. Young announced the approach of the army to a large group of Latter-day Saints gathered in Big Cottonwood Canyon for Pioneer Day celebrations on July 24, 1857. Initially conceived as permanent, the evacuation began to be seen by the Mormon leadership as tactical and temporary as soon as word came that Kane was bringing Cumming to Salt Lake City without the army. It seems that Kane successfully convinced Young to accept Buchanan's appointment of Cumming as Territorial governor, although Young had expressed his willingness to accept such terms at the very beginning of the crisis. However, circumstances necessitated a "Move South" rather than a "Move North.". Message from the President of the United States, transmitting reports from the secretaries of state, of war, of the interior, and of the attorney general, relative to the military expedition ordered into the territory of Utah. 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